Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium

Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium

Discover the benefits of low-budget barn living with our cost-effective barn homes. With our simple barndominium layouts and rural home building expertise, you can create your dream home without breaking the bank.

Our economical barndominium plans and DIY barndominium construction tips will help you save money while still achieving stunning results. Whether you’re looking for affordable barndominium designs or affordable barn-style houses, we have the solutions to fit your budget.

Experience the simplicity and affordability of simple barndominium building. Start your journey towards a unique and practical living space today.

About Barndominiums

Barndominiums have become a popular choice for rural home building due to their cost-effective nature and unique charm. These barn homes offer a simplified living space and combine the rustic appeal of a barn with the comfort of a modern home.

With simple barndominium layouts and affordable barn-style houses, these economical barndominium plans provide a low-budget solution for those looking to create their dream home in a rural setting. Whether you’re interested in a small weekend getaway or a spacious family retreat, there are plenty of affordable barndominium designs to choose from.

One of the main advantages of barndominiums is their versatility. The open floor plans allow for flexible living arrangements and can easily be customized to fit your needs. From traditional designs to more modern styles, the possibilities are endless when it comes to designing your own barndominium.

In addition to their affordability, barndominiums also offer energy efficiency and sustainability. Constructed with metal frames and durable materials, these homes are built to withstand the test of time and provide long-lasting comfort.

So, if you’re looking for a simple barndominium building or a budget-friendly barn conversion, consider the benefits of these unique homes. Embrace the simplicity and charm of a barndominium and enjoy the beauty of rural living without breaking the bank.

Benefits of Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium

When it comes to finding an affordable and practical housing solution, a low cost simple barndominium offers several benefits. Here are some advantages of choosing this economical option:

1. Cost-Effective Barn Homes

Building a barndominium is a cost-effective alternative to traditional homes. By repurposing a barn or using barn-style designs, you can save money on construction materials and labor.

2. Economical Barndominium Plans

Barndominium plans are often more affordable than traditional house plans. They are designed to optimize space and functionality, allowing you to make the most out of your budget.

3. DIY Barndominium Construction

With simple barndominium building techniques and readily available resources, it is possible to construct a barndominium yourself. This can further reduce costs as you won’t need to hire a contractor.

4. Low-Budget Barn Living

Living in a barndominium provides a unique and affordable way to experience barn-style living. You’ll have a rustic and charming space without breaking the bank.

5. Affordable Barndominium Designs

Barndominium designs offer a wide range of affordable options. From simple layouts to more elaborate designs, you can find a style that suits your budget and preferences.

6. Simple Barndominium Layouts

Barndominiums are known for their open and flexible layouts. This simplicity allows for easy customization and future modifications, ensuring your home can adapt to your changing needs.

7. Affordable Barn-Style Houses

A barndominium gives you the opportunity to live in a barn-style house without the high costs associated with traditional barn conversions. You can enjoy the rustic charm without sacrificing your budget.

8. Budget-Friendly Barn Conversions

If you already have a barn on your property, converting it into a barndominium can be a budget-friendly option. Utilizing the existing structure can save you money on construction and materials.

In conclusion, a low cost simple barndominium offers a variety of benefits, including cost-effectiveness, DIY construction possibilities, and affordable designs. Explore the world of barndominium living and enjoy a unique and budget-friendly housing solution.


Our DIY barndominium construction allows you to save money by doing the work yourself. With simple barndominium layouts and easy-to-follow instructions, anyone can take on the challenge of building their own home. Say goodbye to expensive contractors and hello to a rewarding DIY project.

Affordable Barn-Style Houses

If you’re looking for an economical living solution, our affordable barn-style houses are the perfect choice. With their unique design and versatile layout options, these homes offer both affordability and style. Whether you’re looking for a cozy studio or a spacious family home, our affordable barn-style houses can be customized to suit your needs.

Budget-Friendly Barn Conversions

If you already have a barn on your property, why not consider a barn conversion? With our economical barndominium plans, you can transform your barn into a comfortable and modern living space. From small renovations to complete overhauls, our simple barndominium building techniques will help you make the most of your budget while creating a unique and charming home.

At Low Cost Simple Barndominium, we believe that everyone should have the opportunity to live in their dream home. With our low-budget barn living options and budget-friendly barn conversions, you can turn your vision into a reality without breaking the bank. Get started on your barndominium journey today and discover the endless possibilities!


When it comes to rural home building, customization is key. With simple barndominium building, you have the freedom to create a space that fits your unique needs and style. The low-budget barn living concept allows for budget-friendly barn conversions, making it a popular choice among those looking for an affordable and practical housing solution.

Simple Barndominium Layouts

One of the advantages of diy barndominium construction is the ability to design your own layout. Whether you’re looking for an open floor plan or separate living spaces, the simplicity of barndominium building allows for flexibility in creating the perfect layout for your needs. From spacious living areas to cozy bedrooms, the possibilities are endless.

Economical Barndominium Plans

With cost-effective barn homes, you can have the home of your dreams without breaking the bank. Barndominiums offer an affordable housing solution that doesn’t compromise on quality or style. By customizing your own barndominium, you can choose cost-effective materials and design elements that fit within your budget, while still creating a beautiful and functional space.

Affordable Barndominium Designs Benefits
1. Energy Efficiency Save money on utility bills with well-insulated walls and energy-efficient appliances.
2. Versatility Create a space that can be easily adapted for different uses, such as a home office or workshop.
3. Low Maintenance Choose materials that require minimal upkeep, saving you time and money in the long run.
4. Personal Touch Add unique touches and finishes to make your barndominium a reflection of your personal style.

With the customization options available in simple barndominium building, you can create a space that is both practical and personalized. From the layout to the design elements, the choice is yours. Start building your dream barndominium today!

Energy Efficiency

When it comes to diy barndominium construction, considering energy efficiency can have a significant impact on your long-term savings. Simple barndominium building techniques can help you create a comfortable and sustainable rural home.

One of the first things to consider is insulation. Proper insulation can prevent heat loss in winter and keep your barndominium cool in summer. By using high-quality insulation materials, you can maintain a consistent temperature inside your home without relying heavily on heating and cooling systems, ultimately reducing your energy bills.

Simple barndominium layouts can also contribute to improved energy efficiency. By strategically positioning windows to maximize natural light, you can reduce the need for artificial lighting during the day. Additionally, incorporating cross-ventilation design can promote air circulation, reducing your reliance on air conditioning.

Affordable barn-style houses can benefit from cost-effective energy-efficient appliances. By choosing energy-efficient appliances, you can minimize electricity consumption without sacrificing functionality. From refrigerator to lighting fixtures, there are many options available that can help you save energy and reduce your utility bills.

Another option to consider for low-budget barn living is the use of renewable energy sources. Installing solar panels on your barndominium roof can help generate electricity, reducing your reliance on the grid. This not only saves you money but also contributes to the overall environmental sustainability of your home.

When it comes to budget-friendly barn conversions, landscaping can play a role in energy efficiency as well. By strategically planting trees and shrubs around your barndominium, you can create natural shading and reduce the amount of direct sunlight that enters your home, keeping it cooler during hot summer months.

Overall, energy efficiency is an essential aspect of affordable barndominium designs. By implementing the right strategies and making conscious choices for insulation, layout, appliances, and renewable energy, you can create an energy-efficient and cost-effective barn home that is not only comfortable to live in but also environmentally friendly.

Factors to Consider Before Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium

When embarking on the journey of building a low cost simple barndominium, there are several factors to consider to ensure a successful and cost-effective project. From choosing the right location to designing a layout that suits your needs, careful planning is key to creating affordable barndominium designs.

Factor Description
Location Choosing the right location for your barndominium is crucial. Look for areas where land prices are lower and zoning regulations allow for the construction of barn-style houses. Rural areas often offer more affordable options for building your low-budget barn living.
Layout Simple barndominium layouts are an excellent way to keep costs down. Consider an open floor plan that maximizes space and minimizes the need for unnecessary walls. This will not only save money on materials but also create a more spacious and functional living space.
Design Affordable barndominium designs can be achieved by opting for a simple and practical style. Choose economical materials and finishes that are both durable and cost-effective. By avoiding excessive architectural details, you can keep construction costs low without compromising on quality.
Budget Creating a realistic budget is essential when planning your low-cost barndominium. Consider all expenses, including land acquisition, permits, construction materials, labor, and any additional features or upgrades you may desire. Having a clear understanding of your budget will help you make informed decisions throughout the process.
Construction DIY barndominium construction can significantly reduce costs if you have the skills, time, and motivation to take on the project yourself. However, if you are not experienced in construction, it may be more cost-effective to hire professionals who can complete the job efficiently and to a high standard.
Long-Term Maintenance Consider the long-term maintenance costs of your affordable barn-style house. Opt for materials and systems that require minimal upkeep and have a long lifespan. This will help you save money on repairs and replacements down the line.

By carefully considering these factors before building your low-cost simple barndominium, you can create an economical and functional living space that meets your needs and budget.


When it comes to building an affordable barndominium, the location is key. Choosing the right rural area for your home is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, rural areas often have more relaxed building regulations, which can make the DIY barndominium construction process much easier. Additionally, the availability of land in rural areas is usually higher, allowing for more options when it comes to finding the perfect spot for your simple barndominium building.

When considering the location for your economical barndominium plans, think about the surrounding environment. Are there any natural features that you want to take advantage of, such as a beautiful view or a nearby lake or river? These factors can enhance the overall appeal of your low-budget barn living experience.

Another important aspect to consider is the accessibility of essential services and amenities. While the idea of living in a rural area might sound idyllic, it’s crucial to ensure that you have easy access to necessities like grocery stores, healthcare facilities, and schools. Researching the infrastructure and services available in the area before committing to a location is highly recommended.

Lastly, think about the long-term potential of the area. Is it a developing community? Are there plans for future growth and investment? Investing in an area with potential growth can increase the value of your affordable barn-style house over time.

Overall, finding the ideal location for your simple barndominium is a vital step in the process. Consider the availability of land, building regulations, surrounding environment, accessibility to services, and long-term potential. By choosing wisely, you can create a budget-friendly barn conversion that not only meets your needs but provides a comfortable and enjoyable rural living experience.

Size and Layout

When it comes to rural home building, barndominiums are an increasingly popular option for those looking for cost-effective barn homes or budget-friendly barn conversions. One of the advantages of simple barndominium building is the flexibility it offers in terms of size and layout.

Whether you are looking for an affordable barndominium design for a small family or a spacious layout for a larger household, there are economical barndominium plans that can suit your needs. With DIY barndominium construction, you have the freedom to customize the size and layout to fit your specific requirements.

Barndominiums offer an excellent solution for affordable barn-style houses. The open concept design allows for versatile and efficient use of space. You can choose to have a large living area with high ceilings, perfect for entertaining guests, or divide the space into multiple rooms for a more traditional floor plan.

Whether you are on a tight budget or simply looking for a low-budget barn living option, barndominiums provide a cost-effective solution. By utilizing the existing structure of a barn, you can save on the cost of materials and construction. The simple design and construction process also mean that you can complete your barndominium project without breaking the bank.

When designing the size and layout of your barndominium, consider factors such as your lifestyle, family size, and future needs. Think about how you can optimize the space to create a functional and comfortable living environment. With the right planning and design, you can create a unique and affordable home that meets all your needs.

Construction Materials

When it comes to building your simple barndominium, it’s important to choose the right construction materials that not only fit your budget but also meet your needs for durability and aesthetics. Here are some budget-friendly options to consider:

1. Metal Panels

Metal panels are a popular choice for DIY barndominium construction. They are durable, easy to install, and require minimal maintenance. With a wide variety of colors and finishes available, metal panels can give your barndominium a modern and sleek look.

2. Recycled Wood

If you are looking for an eco-friendly and cost-effective option, using recycled wood for your barndominium construction can be a great choice. Not only does it help reduce waste, but it also gives a rustic and charming appearance to your affordable barn-style house.

When using recycled wood, make sure to properly treat and seal the materials to protect them from moisture and pests.

3. Concrete

Concrete is a versatile and durable material that can be used for various parts of your low-budget barn living project. From the foundation to the floors, using concrete can provide excellent insulation properties and improve energy efficiency.

Consider using decorative concrete techniques to add a touch of elegance to your cost-effective barn home. Stamped concrete or acid staining can give your barndominium a unique and stylish look.

4. SIPs (Structural Insulated Panels)

SIPs are becoming increasingly popular for rural home building, including affordable barndominium designs. These pre-fabricated panels consist of an insulating foam core sandwiched between two structural skins, typically made of oriented strand board (OSB).

SIPs offer excellent insulation, reducing energy costs in the long run. They are also quick and easy to assemble, making them a popular choice for DIY builders looking for economical barndominium plans.

Remember to consider local building codes and regulations when selecting your construction materials. Additionally, consult with professionals or experienced builders to ensure the materials you choose meet the necessary structural requirements for your barndominium.

Permits and Regulations

When embarking on the construction of your economical barndominium, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the necessary permits and regulations. This will ensure that your project meets all legal requirements and avoids any future issues.

Local Building Codes

Before starting your project, it is crucial to research and understand the local building codes in your area. Each location may have specific regulations governing the construction of budget-friendly barn conversions or simple barndominium layouts. These codes typically cover aspects such as structural requirements, electrical systems, plumbing, and fire safety.

Permit Requirements

In most cases, building permits are required for the construction of affordable barn-style houses or cost-effective barn homes. These permits are obtained from the local government or building department and ensure that your project complies with the applicable regulations. The permit process may involve submitting construction plans, paying fees, and scheduling inspections throughout the project timeline.

It’s important to highlight that regulations and permit requirements may vary from one jurisdiction to another. Therefore, it is essential to consult with the relevant authorities or a professional in your area to ensure compliance.

In addition to building permits, you may also need specific permits for certain aspects of your barndominium project. This could include permits for electrical work, plumbing installations, or septic systems. Understanding and obtaining these permits will help you avoid potential fines or delays in your diy barndominium construction.

Environmental Considerations

When planning your low-budget barn living or simple barndominium building project, it’s important to be aware of any environmental regulations that may apply. These regulations may include restrictions on land use, protected habitats, water usage, or waste management.

Complying with environmental regulations not only ensures legal compliance but also helps protect the environment and promotes sustainable practices. Consulting with local environmental agencies or professionals can provide valuable guidance in navigating these considerations.

Remember, adhering to permits and regulations is not only a legal requirement but also essential for the successful completion of your affordable barndominium project. By carefully researching and understanding the applicable requirements, you can embark on your construction journey with confidence.

Steps to Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium

Building affordable barn-style houses, also known as barndominiums, has gained popularity in recent years. With their cost-effective construction and unique charm, barndominiums have become a popular choice for those looking for affordable and versatile housing options. If you are considering DIY barndominium construction, follow these simple steps to create your own low-cost barndominium:

1. Determine Your Budget and Design

Before starting any construction project, it is essential to determine your budget and design preferences. Research affordable barndominium designs and simple barndominium layouts that fit your needs. Consider factors such as the number of bedrooms, bathrooms, and common living areas. Create a cost-effective and practical design plan that meets your requirements.

2. Find a Suitable Location

Choosing the right location for your barndominium is crucial. Consider rural areas with accessible utilities and zoning regulations that allow for residential construction. Research local laws and regulations related to rural home building to ensure that your project complies with all necessary permits and requirements.

3. Develop Economical Barndominium Plans

Work with an architect or a professional designer to develop cost-effective and simple barndominium building plans. They will help you create accurate blueprints and construction documents that factor in all necessary elements, such as structural integrity, insulation, wiring, plumbing, and HVAC systems. These economical barndominium plans will guide you throughout the construction process.

4. Gather Necessary Materials and Tools

Make a detailed list of all the materials and tools you will need for the construction. Research local suppliers and compare prices to find the most affordable options. Consider purchasing recycled or salvaged materials to save money. Ensure that you have all the necessary tools for the construction, including power tools, safety equipment, and measuring instruments.

5. Prepare the Site for Construction

Clear the construction site, removing any obstacles, trees, or debris that could interfere with the construction process. Level the ground and ensure proper drainage to prevent flooding or water damage. Secure any necessary permits or inspections required for site preparation.

6. Build the Structure

Start the construction process by building the foundation and erecting the structural framework of your barndominium. Follow the blueprints and plans provided by your architect or designer. Use cost-effective construction methods to save money, such as using metal panels for the walls and roof, and opting for simple but sturdy construction techniques.

7. Install Utilities and Systems

Once the structure is complete, it’s time to install the necessary utilities and systems. Hire professionals to handle the electrical, plumbing, and HVAC installations to ensure they are done safely and efficiently. Consider energy-efficient options to save on long-term utility costs.

8. Complete Interior and Exterior Finishes

Add the finishing touches to your barndominium by completing the interior and exterior finishes. Install insulation, drywall, flooring, and paint the walls. Consider affordable and low-maintenance options for the finishes, such as laminate flooring and vinyl siding. Personalize the space according to your preferences and style.

9. Conduct Inspections and Finalize

Before moving into your low-budget barn living space, schedule inspections to ensure that everything is up to code and meets safety standards. Address any necessary repairs or modifications. Once all inspections are passed, obtain the required certificates and permits for occupancy.

10. Enjoy Your Affordable Barndominium!

Once your DIY barndominium construction is complete, it’s time to enjoy your new affordable and practical living space. Embrace the unique charm of your barndominium and make it your own. Invite friends and family to visit and see how building a low-cost simple barndominium can create a comfortable and stylish home.

Benefit Description
Affordability Building a low-cost barndominium saves you money compared to traditional construction methods.
Flexibility The versatile design of barndominiums allows you to customize the space according to your needs.
Efficiency With the right insulation and energy-efficient systems, barndominiums can be cost-effective to heat and cool.
Unique Style Barndominiums offer a rustic and charming aesthetic, combining the best elements of barns and homes.
Low Maintenance Using durable materials and simple construction techniques, barndominiums require minimal maintenance.

Design and Planning

When it comes to rural home building, budget-friendly barn conversions have become a popular choice for homeowners. The concept of a simple barndominium building allows for affordable barn-style houses that blend practicality and functionality.

Designing and planning an economical barndominium requires careful consideration of the space and layout. It is essential to create cost-effective barn homes that meet the specific needs and preferences of the homeowner.

One of the advantages of simple barndominium layouts is the flexibility they offer. The open floor plan provides a blank canvas for creating affordable barndominium designs that can be customized to suit individual tastes. Whether you prefer a minimalist approach or a more elaborate design, the options are endless.

When choosing the layout for your barndominium, think about factors such as the placement of bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchen, and living areas. Consider how you want the flow of the space to work and how each room will connect to the others.

Another important aspect of the design and planning phase is the selection of materials. Opting for cost-effective and durable materials ensures that your barndominium remains low-budget in the long run. From the exterior siding to the flooring and fixtures, every component contributes to the overall affordability of the project.

In conclusion, designing an affordable barndominium requires careful consideration of the layout and materials. With the right planning and an understanding of your budget, you can create a cost-effective barn home that blends practicality and style.

Foundation and Site Preparation

When it comes to building a low-cost simple barndominium, one of the most important steps is the foundation and site preparation. Choosing the right foundation is crucial for the stability and longevity of your rural home building.

Affordable barn-style houses require a solid foundation that can withstand the weight and structural demands of the simple barndominium building. Depending on your budget and preferences, you can opt for a variety of foundation types such as slab-on-grade, pier and beam, or even a crawl space.

Before starting the construction of your low-budget barn living space, it’s crucial to prepare the site properly. Clear the area from any debris, rocks, or vegetation that may hinder the construction process. Level the ground to ensure a smooth and even surface for building.

Affordable barndominium designs also require proper drainage to avoid any water-related issues. Consider installing a drainage system or grading the surrounding soil to direct water away from the foundation.

Budget-friendly barn conversions can benefit from conducting a soil test to determine the soil’s bearing capacity. This test will help you choose the appropriate foundation type and ensure its stability and durability.

DIY barndominium construction can be a rewarding project, but it’s important to follow all local building codes and regulations. Obtain the necessary permits before starting the construction process to avoid any legal complications.

Economical barndominium plans often include adding insulation to the foundation to improve energy efficiency and reduce heating and cooling costs. Consider insulating the foundation to create a comfortable living space.

As you embark on your journey to build a simple barndominium, remember that proper foundation and site preparation lay the groundwork for a successful and durable structure. Take the time and effort to ensure a solid foundation, and you’ll enjoy your budget-friendly barndominium for years to come.

Frame Construction

Frame construction is a popular choice for building affordable barn-style houses and barndominiums. With its simple and cost-effective design, it offers a practical solution for those looking to create their dream rural home on a budget.

Affordable Barndominium Designs

When it comes to barndominium designs, simplicity is key. Frame construction allows for easy customization and flexibility, making it an ideal choice for creating simple barndominium layouts that suit your needs and preferences.

Cost-effective Barn Homes

Frame construction offers a cost-effective approach to barn homes. By utilizing affordable building materials and simple construction techniques, you can achieve the look and functionality of a traditional barn conversion at a fraction of the cost.

Whether you’re looking to build a full-time residence, a weekend getaway, or a workshop space, frame construction provides a budget-friendly solution for any project.

Simple Barndominium Building

One of the advantages of frame construction is its simplicity. With readily available materials and straightforward assembly processes, you can embark on a DIY barndominium construction project without the need for extensive construction experience.

By following a step-by-step guide or utilizing pre-designed frame kits, you can enjoy the satisfaction of building your own low-budget barn living space.

Benefits of Frame Construction for Barndominiums
1. Affordability
2. Customizability
3. Cost-effectiveness
4. Flexibility
5. Ease of DIY construction

Whether you’re looking to create a cozy living space, a modern workshop, or a versatile storage area, frame construction provides a solid foundation for your barndominium project.

Roofing and Exterior

When it comes to the roofing and exterior of your DIY barndominium construction project, there are several cost-effective options to consider. In order to create a low-budget barn living space that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing, proper roofing and exterior materials and designs are essential.

Rural home building often requires durable and weather-resistant materials, and this holds true for barndominiums as well. Metal roofs are a popular choice for their affordability and durability. They can withstand extreme weather conditions and require minimal maintenance, making them ideal for budget-friendly barn conversions.

When choosing the roofing material for your barndominium, consider the climate and overall style of your rural home. For a more traditional barn appearance, corrugated metal or standing seam metal roofs are great options. On the other hand, if you prefer a more modern look, architectural shingles or even solar panels can be incorporated into your design.

Another important aspect of the exterior of your barndominium is the siding. Opting for simple and affordable materials such as metal panels or treated wood can help keep costs down. These materials are not only cost-effective but also highly durable, ensuring that your barndominium stays in top shape for years to come.

When it comes to the overall design of your barndominium, simplicity is key. Simple barndominium layouts not only save on construction costs but also make your project more manageable. By keeping the design straightforward, you can minimize unnecessary expenses and focus on creating an affordable, yet functional space.

Consider incorporating barn-style elements into the design, such as sliding barn doors or a cupola on the roof. These small details can add character to your barndominium without breaking the bank.

With the right roofing and exterior materials, your barndominium can be transformed into an affordable and stylish home. Whether you prefer a more traditional barn-style look or want to incorporate modern elements, there are plenty of affordable barndominium designs to choose from. By utilizing simple barndominium building techniques and cost-effective materials, you can create a one-of-a-kind space that combines the charm of a barn with the comforts of a home.

Advantages of Metal Roofing: Advantages of Simple Exterior Materials:
– Affordability – Cost-effectiveness
– Durability – Durability
– Weather resistance – Minimal maintenance
– Options for traditional or modern look – Easy to install

Questions and answers:

What is the book “Building a Low Cost Simple Barndominium – The Ultimate Practical Guide” about?

The book is a comprehensive guide on how to build a low-cost simple barndominium. It provides practical tips and advice for every step of the construction process.

Are there any floor plans included in the book?

Yes, the book includes a variety of floor plans that can be used as a starting point for designing your own barndominium. These floor plans are customizable and can be adapted to fit your specific needs and preferences.

What are some of the cost-saving strategies mentioned in the book?

The book covers a range of cost-saving strategies, including tips on finding affordable materials, repurposing existing structures, and DIY approaches to construction. It also provides guidance on how to negotiate with contractors and suppliers to get the best possible prices.

Is the book suitable for beginners with no construction experience?

Yes, the book is designed for beginners with no prior construction experience. It explains the construction process in simple terms and provides step-by-step instructions that are easy to follow. It also includes helpful illustrations and diagrams to assist with understanding.

Are there any additional resources or references mentioned in the book?

Yes, the book includes a list of additional resources and references that readers can consult for further information. These resources include websites, books, and other publications that cover various aspects of barndominium construction and design.